The Role of Dexmedetomidine in the Structure of Anesthesia for Hip and Knee Arthroplastyс Surgery in Patients with Diabetes


Oleksandr Halushko
Larysa Zenkina


Hip and knee arthroplasty (HKA) is a surgical procedure when damaged parts of the joint are replaced with artificial ones that replicate the shape of a normal joint and restore its function.

Every year more than 1.5 million endoprosthetic operations are performed in the world. Replacement of a damaged joint allows patients to return to the normal life, freeing from pain and limited mobility. However, one of the common diseases that negatively affect the results of these operations is diabetes mellitus (DM).

The aim of the study: to determine the efficacy and safety of the combined multimodal low opioid anesthesia with dexmedetomidine sedation in patients with diabetes undergoing HKA surgery.

Materials and methods. The study included 45 patients who underwent HKA surgery. Patients were divided into three groups according to the scheme of anesthesia. In patients of the 1st group (n = 15) multicomponent low-flow anesthesia with artificial lung ventilation was performed, in the patients of the 2nd group (n = 15) spinal anesthesia was used, in the 3rd group (n = 15) – combined spinal – epidural anesthesia with dexmedetomidine sedation.

The groups of patients were identical in anthropometric and gender characteristics, duration of surgery and anesthesia, baseline somatic status.

Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics suite (SPSS v.16.0).

Results. The course of anesthesia in patients in all groups was satisfactory, but patients in group 3 were less likely to experience hyperdynamic reactions (tachycardia and hypotension), postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Only one patient from group 3 required ondansetron for the treatment of PONV against 3 and 2 patients from groups 1 and 2, respectively (p <0.05).

Conclusions. Any of the proposed techniques can be used for anesthesia during hip and knee arthroplasty, but the best results have been obtained with combined spinal-epidural anesthesia with dexmedetomidine sedation. In addition, the use of dexmedetomidine can significantly reduce the use of opioids diring the intraoperative and postoperative period.


How to Cite
Halushko, O., & Zenkina, L. (2022). The Role of Dexmedetomidine in the Structure of Anesthesia for Hip and Knee Arthroplastyс Surgery in Patients with Diabetes. Family Medicine, (1-2), 48–53.
For practicing physicians
Author Biographies

Oleksandr Halushko, P. L. Shupyk National Healthcare University of Ukraine

Oleksandr А. Halushko,

Department of Family Medicine and Outpatient Care

Larysa Zenkina, State Scientific Institution «Center for Innovative Medical Technologies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine»

Larysa M. Zenkina,

Department of Anesthesiology


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