Smoking: Pathogenetic Mechanisms, Possibilities of Medical Correction (Literature Review)


Liliia Babynets
Zoreslava Onufryk


The smoking epidemic is one of the greatest threats to human health, as it is the leading cause of death worldwide, as well as many preventable diseases. Diseases associated with smoking include cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, osteoporosis and others.

The aim is to analyze information on the pathogenetic mechanisms of tobacco exposure and methods of its drug correction.

Among the 4,000 chemicals identified in tobacco smoke, nicotine is the main active ingredient in tobacco products. It is highly toxic and potentially lethal.

Nicotine affects many systems, including the neurological, neuromuscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, immunological and gastrointestinal systems. Therefore, nicotine-containing drugs reduce the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal in regular smokers who abstain from smoking. The presence of different types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, their regulation and desensitization affect these complex physiological effects.

Nicotine replacement drugs contain pure nicotine, in order to reduce the patient’s propensity to use tobacco, physiological and psychomotor withdrawal symptoms. They increase the level of nicotine in the blood, thus facilitating the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence. Smokers can quit without using nicotine-containing drugs, but most those who try do not succeed on the first try. Nicotine replacement drugs only affect physical dependence.

Nicotine is the main factor responsible for dependence on cigarette smoking, and its rate of absorption and entry into the brain are considered key factors responsible for the high potential for abuse of this drug. The advantage of nicotine-containing drugs is the patient’s independence from the method of administration, determination of abstinence, duration of treatment, level of supportive counseling, place of treatment (hospital, clinic or support group), as well as fixed, variable or reduced doses. There are a number of nicotine-containing drugs in various forms that effectively promote smoking cessation in adults.


How to Cite
Babynets, L., & Onufryk, Z. (2021). Smoking: Pathogenetic Mechanisms, Possibilities of Medical Correction (Literature Review). Family Medicine, (2-3), 92–95.
Lectures and reviews
Author Biographies

Liliia Babynets, I. Ya. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine

Liliia S. Babynets,

Department of Primary Health Care and General Practice–Family Medicine

Zoreslava Onufryk, I. Ya. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine

Zoreslava Ya. Onufryk,

Department of Primary Health Care and General Practice–Family Medicine


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