Cardiovascular diseases are the leading diseases in Ukraine and are the cause of more than half of deaths. They are inextricably linked to lifestyle, diet, bad habits, physical activity, stressors and are the cause of other risk factors. The most common of these are unmodified factors, such as: gender, age, heredity; and modified: dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, overweight and obesity, diabetes mellitus, smoking, psychosocial factors.
According to the results of the published STEPS study in 2019, conducted together with the WHO, which analyzed risk factors among the civilian population of Ukraine aged 18 to 69 years. It was noted that 32,8% of the population had risk factors for CVD. High blood pressure or hypertension was observed in 34,8% of the population. The prevalence of hyperglycemia was 7,1%. Only 39,6% of the population of Ukraine had a normal weight for BMI, 59,1% were overweight, including 24,8% of the population were obese. 33,9% were active smokers, and alcohol consumption was observed in 19,7% of the population. Given the data from the STEPS study, we were interested in the frequency of detection of the main risk factors for cardiovascular events among servicemen.
The objective: of the study is to determine the frequency of detection of the main risk factors for cardiovascular events among active servicemen and retirees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs at the stage of inpatient treatment in the conditions of NVMKC «GVKG».
Materials and methods. Random sampling was used to analyze 104 case histories of patients in the cardiology department of NVMKC «GVKG» for the period from January 2018 to December 2019. Risk factors and the frequency with which they occur in different categories of patients were studied. The examination group consisted of male patients (100% of cases) aged 33 to 93 years, the average was 66,55±1,47 years. To study the age characteristics of the prevalence of CVD risk factors, patients were divided into two groups: Group I active servicemen, whose average age was 46,41±1,78 years; Group II retirees MOU, whose average age was 71,95±1,26 years.
Statistical processing of the results was performed by methods of variation, parametric and non parametric statistics of medical and biological profile using a package of original applied statistical programs «Microsoft Ecxel», «Statistica 7.0».
Results. According to the results of the study, the indicators of blood pressure in group I were analyzed: the indicators of mean systolic and diastolic pressure were 129,09±3,86 / 80,45±2,71 mm Hg (n=22). In group II, the average systolic and diastolic pressure were: 138,84±2,41 / 82,99±1,22 mm Hg (n=82). To assess blood pressure, we chose the classification proposed by the WHO in the study (STEPS-2019) for the possibility of compara tive analysis.
The percentage of patients in group I with normal blood pressure was 77,27%; high blood pressure was observed in 22,73% of patients, according to the results of their own study, high blood pressure was not detected. In patients of group II normal blood pressure was registered in 63,41%, elevated in 26,83% of patients and high blood pressure was observed in 9,76% of patients.
Examining the indicators of laboratory studies, we found that an increase in cholesterol was observed in 45,5% of cases in group I, and in 22,7% of cases the level of cholesterol was not determined. In group II, an increase in cholesterol levels was found in 35,4% of cases, in 13,4% of cases the cholesterol level was not determined.
According to the results of the study, an increase in blood glucose levels was observed in 10,6% of cases and 55,8% of cases in group II. Normal blood glucose levels were in 33,7% of patients. The percentage of patients with concomitant type II diabetes was 1,9% of cases of group I, and 14.4% of cases of group II. 72,2% of Group I servicemen and 64.6% of Group II servicemen had an elevated BMI. 50% had a bad habit – smoking in the first group and 18,3% in the second group.
Conclusions. We found that the indicators of high blood pressure in groups I and II were 22,73% and 26,83%, which is 12,07% and 6,77% less than among the civilian population of Ukraine where the rate of high blood pressure was 34,8%. The level of total cholesterol is 4,8% higher in patients of group I (45,5%) than among the civilian population of Ukraine (40,7%). In group II by 5,3% less (35,4%), respectively, from the study. The rate of elevated fasting blood glucose in group I (10,6%) is 3,5% higher, and in group II (55,8%), 48,7% higher than the results obtained among the civilian population of Ukraine, where the level of glycemia was 7,1%. The incidence of type II diabetes mellitus in group I (1,9%), which is 1,9% less than the results obtained among the population of Ukraine, where the result was 3,8%, and in group II (14,4%) by 10,6% more, respectively.
The increase in BMI in patients of groups I and II was 40,9% and 46,3%, which is 18,2% and 12,8% lower than the data obtained among the civilian population of Ukraine, where the percentage of overweight was 59,1%. The prevalence of smoking among servicemen is 6,68% lower than among the civilian population of Ukraine (33,9%) and amounted to 27,04%.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the first publication of original scientific articles under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to distribute work with acknowledgment of authorship and first publication in this journal.
Tsentr hromadskoho zdorovia MOZ Ukrainy. Available from: https://phc.org.ua/news/sercevo-sudinni-zakhvoryuvannya-golovna-prichina-smerti-ukraincivvisnovki-z-doslidzhennya
Mezentseva NI, Batychenko SP, Mezentsev KV. Zakhvoriuvanist i zdorovia naselennia v Ukraini: suspilno-heohrafichnyi vymir: monohrafiia [tekst]. Kyiv: DP Print Servis. 2018. 136 p.
Parkhomenko O.M, Sokolov YuM, Kozhukhov SM. Rekomendatsii Asotsiatsii kardiolohiv Ukrainy shchodo vedennia patsiientiv z hostrym koronarnym syndromom z elevatsiieiu sehmenta ST. Ukrainskyi kardiolohichnyi zhurnal, dodatok 3. Kyiv; 2013. 47 p.
Khera S, Kolte D, Gupta T, Subramanian KS, Khanna N, Aronow WS, Ahn C, Timmermans RJ, Cooper HA, Fonarow GC, Frishman WH, Panza JA, Bhatt DL. Temporal trends and sex differences in revascularization and outcomes of st-segment elevation myocardial infarction in younger adults in the United States. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66(18):1961-72.
Lashkul Z.V. Kurochka VL. Sotsialno-hihiienichne doslidzhennia faktoriv ryzyku sertsevo-sudynnykh zakhvoriuvan sered likariv riznykh fakhovykh hrup, ziasuvannia stavlennia likariv do problem profilaktyky. Zaporizkyi med. zhurnal. 2014;3(84):23-5.
Parkhomenko AN, Lutaj YaM, Dashan N. Ukrainskij registr ostrogo infarkta miokarda kak fragment evropejskogo: kharakteristika bol’nykh, organizaciya medicinskoj pomoshchi i gospital’naya terapiya. Ukr. med. chasopis. 2011;1(81):20-4.
Liu K, Daviglus ML, Loria CM et al. Healthy lifestyle through young adulthood and the presence of low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) study. Circulation. 2012;125(8):996-1004.
Kehmma AD, Lyushera TF, Serriusa PV, editors. Bolezni serdca i sosudov. Rukovodstvo Evropejskogo obshchestva kardiologov. Per. s angl. pod red. E.V. Shlyakhto. Moskva: GEHOTAR-Media. 2011. 125 р.
Profilaktika serdechno-sosudistykh zabolevanij: populyacionnaya strategiya I individualizirovannye programmy (na osnove Evropejskikh rekomendacij po profilaktike serdechno-sosudistykh zabolevanij v klinicheskoj praktike 2012). Kiev: MORION, 2013. 143 p.
Ferdinand KC, Rodriguez F, Nasser SA, et al. Cardiorenal metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risks in minority populations. Cardiorenal Med. 2014;4(1):1-11.
Peto R, Lopez AD, Boreham J, Thun M. Mortality from smoking in developed countries. 1950–2000. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2003.
Orakzai SH, Orakzai RH, Nasir K, et al. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis: racial profiling is necessary! Am Heart J. 2006;152(5):819-27.
STEPS poshyrenist faktoriv ryzyku neinfektsiinykh zakhvoriuvan Ukraina. 2019. World Health Organization.
Kovalenko V.M, Kornatskoho VM, editors. Khvoroby systemy krovoobihu yak medyko-sotsialna i suspilno-politychna problema (Analitychno-statystychnyi posibnyk). Kyiv. 2014. 280 р.
Aiyer AN, Kip KE, Marroquin OC, et al. Racial differences in coronary artery calcification are not attributed to differences in lipoprotein particle sizes: the Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation (Heart SCORE) Study. Am Heart J. 2007;153(2):328-334.
Piepoli MF, Hoes АW, Agewal S. et al. 2016 European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. The sixth joint task force of the European Society of Cardiology and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts). Developed with the special contribution of the European association for cardiovascular prevention & rehabilitation (EACPR). Eur. J. Prev. Cardiol. 2016;23:NP1-NP96.