Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in diabetes mellitus. Endothelial dysfunction is the first step in the development of atherosclerotic vascular lesions, which underlies cardiovascular pathology, and adhesion molecules secreted by the endothelium during inflammatory changes are involved in the progression of this lesion.
The objective: the serum level of adhesive molecules (ІCAM-1, VCAM-1, Е-selectin) in hypertensive and non-hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients as a marker of endothelial dysfunction and its relationship with other risk factors for cardiovascular disease was studied.
Materials and methods. We examined 64 patients with type 2 diabetes, which were divided into two subgroups: the first subgroup – 41 hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients (age – 53,56±7,14 years, BMI – 32,2±87,4; HbA1c – 9,97±2,02%), the second subgroup – 23 nonhypertensive type 2 diabetes patients (age – 50,5±4,92 years, BMI – 25,4±5,22; HbA1c – 9,09±1,95%). The control group included 18 people without diabetes with normal blood pressure (age – 50,72±6,98 years, BMI – 24,71±4,88; HbA1c – 5,26±0,42%). The serum level was determined by immunoenzyme assay. The significance of the difference between the mean values was determined by the t-Student test. Multifactor regression analysis was used to assess the relationships between the studied factors.
Results. We revealed an increase of serum levels of ІCAM-1, VCAM-1, Е-selectin in hypertensive (+71,62%, +68,42%, +66,95%, respectively) and non-hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients (+46,17%, +62,79%, +42,85%, respectively) compared with the control group (p<0,01). The serum concentration of ІCAM-1, Е-selectin was higher in hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients compared to non-hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients (+17,27%, +16,86%, respectively, p<0,01). There was a significant effect of Hb1Ac, lipids, insulin resistance on the serum level of ІCAM-1, VCAM-1, Е-selectin (p<0,01). The corresponding regression equations are derived.
Conclusion. There is an increase of serum level of ІCAM-1, VCAM-1, Е-selectin in hypertensive and non-hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients, which indicates the development of endothelial dysfunction. Hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance contribute to the development of these changes.
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