The Impact of Stress on Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Obesity (Systematic Review)

Authors

  • В. І. Ткаченко P.L. Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education
  • Т. О. Багро P.L. Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.30841/2307-5112.4.2020.217975

Keywords:

obesity, pathogenesis, stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system, orexin, serotonin

Abstract

Obesity is reaching the scale of a pandemic and is growing progressively every year. Taking into account the introduction of quarantine in many countries of the world associated with COVID-19, alarge number of patients are in a state of constant stress, hypodynamics, hypoxemia, which contributes to the prevalence of this nosology. Under such conditions, there is a need for a detailed analysis of the impact of stress and other factors on the pathogenetic links in the development of obesity, determines the relevance of our study and the need to find more effective preventive measures in the practice of family medicine.

The objective: is to analyse the pathogenetic mechanisms of obesity under the influence of stress and other factors using systematic analysis of literature data.

Materials and methods. A systematic review of literature sources in the field of obesity and its pathogenetic aspects was conducted by keywords: pathogenesis of obesity, overveight, stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system, orexin, serotonin for the period 2015–2020. The search was carried out mainly in PubMed and Cochrane databases. The bibliosemantic method and the method of systematic analysis were used.

Results. According to the results of searches in the PubMed and Cochrane databases, 58131 sources were found by keywords, from which 29 most relevant research goals were selected, including: 16 systematic reviews, 2 meta-analyzes, 3 multicenter data and 8 cohort studies. It is established that despite the diversity of pathogenetic aspects of obesity, adipose tissue is an endocrine-active organ that changes the functional state of many organs and systems, leads to metabolic and hormonal changes, led primarily by disbalance of the hypothalamic region, which is responsible for somatoform and hormonal disorders, and for the body’s protective reactions on exposition of many orexogenic factors.

Conclusion. A crucial point in the practice of a family doctor, which will help to effectively prevent the development of obesity and its noninfectious and infectious complications, is to study all possible risk factors, their complex interaction at all levels of pathogenetic changes. Taking into account the influence of stress factors on the hypothalamic region, which is one of the key links in the pathogenesis of metabolic and somatoform changes, will help to find more effective approaches to the correction of overweight.

Author Biographies

В. І. Ткаченко, P.L. Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education

Viktoriia I. Tkachenko,

Department of Family Medicine

Т. О. Багро, P.L. Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education

Taisiia O. Bagro,

Department of Family Medicine

References

Wilding, J. (2020). Endocrine testing in obesity, European Journal of Endocrinology, 182(4), C13-C15. Retrieved Sep 22, 2020, from https://eje.bioscientifica.com/view/journals/eje/182/4/EJE-20-0099.xml DOI: https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-20-0099

Frühbeck G, Busetto L, Dicker D, et al. The ABCD of Obesity: An EASO Position Statement on a Diagnostic Term with Clinical and Scientific Implications. Obes Facts. 2019;12(2):131–136. doi:10.1159/000497124

W. Timothy Garvey, Jeffrey I. Mechanick, Response to “Proposal for a Scientifically Correct and Medically Actionable Disease Classification System (ICD) for Obesity”, Obesity, Volume 28, Issue 3 March 2020 Pages 484–492 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22727

Hussain A, Mahawar K, Xia Z, Yang W, El-Hasani S. Obesity and mortality of COVID-19. Meta-analysis. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2020;14(4):295–300. doi:10.1016/j.orcp.2020.07.002

Caci G, Albini A, Malerba M, Noonan DM, Pochetti P, Polosa R. COVID-19 and Obesity: Dangerous Liaisons. J Clin Med. 2020;9(8):2511. Published 2020 Aug 4. doi:10.3390/jcm9082511

Finer N, Garnett SP, Bruun JM. COVID-19 and obesity. Clin Obes. 2020 Jun;10(3):e12365. doi: 10.1111/cob.12365. Epub 2020 Apr 27. PMID: 32342637; PMCID: PMC7267455.

Simonnet A, Chetboun M, Poissy J, et al. High Prevalence of Obesity in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Requiring Invasive Mechanical Ventilation. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2020;28(7):1195–1199. doi:10.1002/oby.22831

Angela M. Jackson-Morris, Rachel Nugent, Johanna Ralston, Olivia Barata Cavalcanti & John Wilding (2020) Strengthening resistance to the COVID-19 pandemic and fostering future resilience requires concerted action on obesity, Global Health Action, 13:1, DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2020.1804700

Scheen AJ. Obésité et risque de COVID-19 sévère [Obesity and risk of severe COVID-19]. Rev Med Suisse. 2020;16(695):1115–1119.

Stefan N, Birkenfeld AL, Schulze MB, Ludwig DS. Obesity and impaired metabolic health in patients with COVID-19. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2020 Jul;16(7):341–342. doi: 10.1038/s41574-020-0364-6. PMID: 32327737; PMCID: PMC7187148.

Hassan SAU, Ahmed I, Nasrullah A, et al. Comparison of Serum Magnesium Levels in Overweight and Obese Children and Normal Weight Children. Cureus. 2017;9(8):e1607. Published 2017 Aug 24. doi:10.7759/cureus.1607

Lu, L., Chen, C., Yang, K. et al. Magnesium intake is inversely associated with risk of obesity in a 30-year prospective follow-up study among American young adults. Eur J Nutr (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02206-3

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342871638 The effects of magnesium supplementation on obesity measures in adults: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials July 2020 Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2020.1790498

Ebrahimi R, Jannat Alipour N, Emamgholipour S. The association between intracellular electrolytes and obesity indices. Arch Med Lab Sci [Internet]. 2019 Oct.14 [cited 2020 Sep.25];4(2). Available from: https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/archives/article/view/26275

Goossens GH. The Metabolic Phenotype in Obesity: Fat Mass, Body Fat Distribution, and Adipose Tissue Function. Obes Facts. 2017;10(3):207–215. doi: 10.1159/000471488

Мкртумян М.,; Бирюкова Е.В. Орлистат в комплексной терапии ожирения и сахарного диабета 2-го типа // Медицинский совет. №3, 2017, с. 68–74. doi:10.21518/2079-701X-2017-3-68-74

Kakizaki M, Tsuneoka Y, Takase K, et al. Differential Roles of Each Orexin Receptor Signaling in Obesity. iScience. 2019;20:1–13. doi:10.1016/j.isci.2019.09.003

Carmo-Silva S, Cavadas C. Hypothalamic Dysfunction in Obesity and Metabolic Disorders. Adv Neurobiol. 2017;19:73–116. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-63260-5_4. PMID: 28933062.

P’yanykh O.P., Gusenbekova D.G., Ametov A.S. Advantages of long-term management the metabolic health in patients with obesity and early disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Endokrinologiya: novosti, mneniya, obuchenie [Endocrinology: News, Opinions, Training]. 2020; 9 (2): 40–8. DOI: 10.33029/2304-9529-2020-9-2-4.0-48 (in Russian)

Imperatore, R., Palomba, L. & Cristino, L. Role of Orexin-A in Hypertension and Obesity. Curr Hypertens Rep 19, 34 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-017-0729-y

Morello G, Imperatore R, Palomba L, et al. Orexin-A represses satiety-inducing POMC neurons and contributes to obesity via stimulation of endocannabinoid signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113(17):4759–4764. doi:10.1073/pnas.1521304113

Gao X, Deming NJ, Alam T, Moore K, Deming NJ. Sleep, Obesity, and Injury Among Male Firefighters. J Occup Environ Med. 2020 Jun;62(6):e289. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001866. PMID: 32510911.

Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ. Brain serotonin, carbohydrate-craving, obesity and depression. Obes Res. 1995 Nov;3 Suppl 4:477S–480S. doi: 10.1002/j.1550-8528.1995.tb00215.x. PMID: 8697046.

Tomiyama AJ. Stress and Obesity. Annu Rev Psychol. 2019 Jan 4;70:703–718. doi: 10.1146/annurevpsych-010418-102936. Epub 2018 Jun 21. PMID: 29927688.

Ikegami R, Shimizu I, Sato T, et al. Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Signaling in Brown Adipose Tissue Promotes Systemic Metabolic Derangement in Obesity. Cell Rep. 2018;24(11):2827–2837.e5. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2018.08.024

Russell G, Lightman S. The human stress response. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2019 Sep;15(9):525-534. doi: 10.1038/s41574-019-0228-0. Epub 2019 Jun 27. PMID: 31249398.

Patterson E., Ryan P.M., Wiley N. et al. Gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactobacilli positively affect metabolism and depressive-like behaviour in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome. Sci Rep 9, 16323 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51781-x

Мазурина Н.В., Ершова Е.В., Трошина Е.А., Сенюшкина Е.С., Тюльпаков А.Н., Иоутси В.А. Жировая ткань и функция надпочечников: механизмы взаимного влияния. Медицинский Совет. 2019;(4):70–77. https://doi.org/10.21518/2079-701X-2019-4-70-77

Sommer, I., Teufer, B., Szelag, M. et al. The performance of anthropometric tools to determine obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 10, 12699 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69498-7

Downloads

Published

2020-10-30

Issue

Section

Lectures and reviews