DOI: https://doi.org/10.30841/2307-5112.1-2.2020.204521

Arterial Hypertension and Heart Failure in General Practice

В. М. Ждан, О. Є. Кітура, Є. М. Кітура, М. Ю. Бабаніна, М. В. Ткаченко

Abstract


The Framingham study demonstrated that myocardial infarction (25% of cases) and arterial hypertension (AH) (75% of cases) caused the development of chronic heart failure (CHF). The most significant predictor of CHF development was an increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure and each increase in SBP by 20 mm Hg and pulse blood pressure by 16 mm Hg led to an increase in the incidence of CHF by 52% and 55%, respectively. The presented clinical case of a patient with CHF, developed due to long-term hypertension, considered the mechanisms of CHF development, as well as the issue of pharmacotherapy of AH in combination with chronic heart failure with systolic dysfunction. The key mechanisms that directly lead to the development of CHF in AH are hemodynamic overload, reduction of myocardial contractility, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The likelihood of CHF development in patients with AH is by 4 times higher, whilst in patients with LVH it is by 15 times higher. Along with LVH, one of the early manifestations of LV remodeling in AH is the development of diastolic dysfunction, which precedes the development of systolic abnormalities in AH and LVH. Antihypertensive therapy resulted in reduction of the incidence of CHF by approximately 52% compared to patients who did not receive adequate therapy. The decrease in the incidence of CHF was linearly dependent on the decrease in SBP: each decrease of SBP by 10 mm Hg led to a 26% reduction in the relative risk in CHF development. It has been established that AH is not only one of the leading etiological factors in CHF development, but also have similar key links in pathogenesis. The strategy for the selection of pathogenetic pharmacotherapy should be determined taking into account the above circumstance. Currently, the European Society of Cardiology recommends prescribing beta-blockers to all patients with stable CHF Class II–IV as a standard treatment in combination with ACE inhibitors and diuretics in the absence of contraindications. In addition to RAAS blockers, medications for patients with AH in combination with systolic CHF can be supplemented with thiazide or loop diuretics, as well as mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA).

Keywords


heart failure; arterial hypertension; systolic dysfunction; beta-blockers; ACE inhibitors

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