Obesity, Hyperinsulinemia, IGF-1, and Hyperglycemia as Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus
The latest studies prove an increased risk of colorectal cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pathogenetic factors of type 2 diabetes have been recognized as mechanisms of association between these diseases.
The objective: to investigate the effects of obesity, hyperinsulinemia, IGF-1 and hyperglycemia on the development of colorectal cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Materials and methods. 36 patients were divided into groups: I – healthy (control group), II – patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, III – patients with colorectal cancer without diabetes, IV – patients with a combination of two diseases. Using the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were determined levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). DM compensation was assessed by the level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) that was determined by immuno-exchange chromatography. The data obtained were analyzed using Statistica 12.0 (StatSoft Inc.,USA). Differences between the values in the control and experimental groups were determined by the Student’s t-test. The differences were considered significant at р<0.05.
Results. According to the data obtained, colorectal cancer was diagnosed in patients with the age of over 60 years old with obesity. The body mass index (BMI) in patients of all study groups was higher than 30 kg/m2. Patients of group IV with a combination of type 2 diabetes and a circle of rectal cancer had significantly higher BMI compared to the control group (р<0.05). Significant hyperinsulinemia and increased IGF-1 levels were detected in patients in all study groups (р<0.05). Most patients with diabetes in both groups had HbA1c levels higher than 7.5%.Conclusions. Obesity, hyperinsulinemia, increased bioavailability of IGF-1, and hyperglycemia are pathogenetic factors in the risk of colorectal cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients over the age of 55 with diabetes, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia are advised to be screened for colorectal cancer.
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