Рекомендації щодо використання вітаміну D

P. Pludowski, M. F. Holick, W. B. Grant, J. Konstantynowicz, M. R. Mascarenhas, A. Haq, V. Povoroznyuk, N. Balatska, A. P. Barbosa, T. Karonova, E. Rudenka, W. Misiorowski, I. Zakharova, A. Rudenka, J. Łukaszkiewicz, E. Marcinowska-Suchowierska, N. Łaszcz, P. Abramowicz, H. P. Bhattoa, S. J. Wimalawansa

Аннотация


Дослідження, які були проведені протягом останніх двох десятиліть, розширили уявлення про роль вітаміну D у регулюванні абсорбції кальцію та фосфату і метаболізму кісток та низки плейотропних ефектів в органах і тканинах тіла. Більшість спостережних та екологічних досліджень повідомляють про зв’язок між підвищеною концентрацією 25-гідроксивітаміну D [25(OH)D] у сироватці крові з поліпшенням результатів деяких хронічних, інфекційних та неінфекційних захворювань. Отже, численні установи та наукові організації розробили керівництва щодо використання вітаміну D та рекомендації щодо оптимальних сироваткових концентрацій 25(OH)D. Згідно з рекомендаціями керівництва, орієнтованого на здоров’я кісток, цільова концентрація 25(OH)D має становити 20 нг/мл (50 нмоль/л), а дози вітаміну D – 400–800 МО залежно від віку. Рекомендації, орієнтовані на плейотропні ефекти вітаміну D, радять досягати концентрації 25(OH)D 30 нг/мл (75 нмоль/л), а дози вітаміну D мають варіюватися у діапазоні від 400 до 2000 МО на добу залежно від віку, маси тіла, стану захворювання та етнічного походження. Розумний і збалансований вибір рекомендацій зумовлений такими факторами, як стан здоров’я, вік, маса тіла, регіон проживання, харчові та культурні звички, що робить регіональні або державні рекомендації більш придатними для застосування у клінічній практиці.

У той самий час як отримання вітаміну D з природних джерел, тобто раціону харчування та регіону проживання, може сприяти підвищенню концентрації 25(ОН)D у певних підгрупах, для загальної популяції ці джерела вважають неефективними для підтримання цілорічної концентрації 25(ОН)D у діапазоні 30‑50 нг/мл (75–125 нмоль/л). Побічні ефекти вітаміну D, пов’язані з його самостійним вживанням, такі, як гіперкальціємія та гіперкальціурія, виникають рідко, і, як правило, є результатом застосування надзвичайно високих доз вітаміну D протягом тривалого часу.

Ключевые слова


вітамін D; 25(OH)D; плейотропний; позаскелетні ефекти; глобальний; рекомендації

Полный текст:

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Литература


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