The role of biological oncomarkers in the differential diagnosis of complex kidney cysts

С. О. Возіанов, А. І. Бойко, Т. І. Шматюк, Д. І. Купрін, О. В. Шмуліченко


The renal cell carcinoma (RCC) ranks first place in mortality among urogenital tumors, and the incidence is third after prostate and bladder cancer. The cystic form of renal cell carcinoma is 5–7%, and  according to recent data – even 10% of all kidney tumors. The early diagnosis of RCC allows for effective treatment, which significantly  increases survival.

Early and accurate diagnosis helps to avoid inadequate treatment, provides a favorable prognosis for progression of the disease and allows for more effective therapy. Most of the renal tumors, including cystic, are diagnosed accidentally during an examination for other reasons. Small tumors are usually asymptomatic, which leads to late diagnosis, and consequently, to the low effectiveness of treatment.

Thus, the need for the use of sensitive biomarkers for early diagnosis of RCC and monitoring of its progression is clearly followed. Nowadays, many attempts have been made by scientists to identify a new informative kidney tumor biomarker that could be used for early diagnosis and disease progression, as well as prognostic capabilities. This overview summarizes the latest advances in the discovery of these biomarkers and their clinical value.


renal cysts; renal cancer; differential diagnosis; tumor markers; classification; malignancy


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